In order to achieve the Four Aims of Life, and especially Moksha, realisation of the unity underpinning all things, a wide variety of practices are undertaken. On this page we will look at the importance and significance of particular places, times, and actions for people who are trying their best to live in accordance with ultimate goodness and truth.
Sacred Time and Space
Practices of dedication, worship, and meditation can happen at any time and at any space in Hinduism. Many things offer paths to divine realisation, and can potentially be used as a point of connection with the divine. Many families or individuals might have personal shrines that they use to perform their own ritual acts of worship whenever they see fit. For communities on a larger scale a local site that holds home historic or aesthetic significance may host a Mandir, or temple, which performs the same function for the community writ large and is usually dedicated to a particular god or goddess as a space for them to call home.
On an even grander scale, specific times and places over time have come to hold even greater significance. And over time, due to their unique history and the layers of repeated actions in the same space, some sites have come to be seen as holy, meeting places between divinity and humanity, and rituals that take place there full blown festivals that see millions of people participating in them from across the Indian subcontinent and the world.
Foundational to the creation of these sites are the divine forces at play in the form of India’s mountains and rivers. Mountains have always been seen as the homes of the gods, reaching high into the sky, Mount Kailash is thought to be the home of Shiva. Across the world, mountains are seen as places which provide refuge and protection for people trying to escape the endless conflict and distraction that happens in the valleys. This is no different in Hinduism. According to Hindu cosmology, reality itself rotates around Mount Meru, the central point of the universe. Day and Night are caused by the sun passing in front of and then behind the mountain.
Then, snaking down from the heavens themselves; rivers, providing life and food for the lands stretching to the cosmic ocean. In Hinduism, these rivers, the most famous of which being the Ganges, are spoken of as Goddesses; ‘Mother Ganges’. Providing the cradles of civilisation, the potential for agriculture, and the promise of cleansing not just the body but the soul.
Along the banks of these rivers, cities and towns mark the places where gods and goddesses were born, travelled, taught, fought, fell in love, and departed. These sites are remembered through festivals and pilgrimages that keep humanity in communion with divinity, and allow for the promise of Moksha, final liberation.
Seven Ancient Holy Towns in particular have risen to prominence throughout history as being the homes and sites of special events in history and the festivals that commemorate them. They are:
- Ayodhya. Birthplace of Ramachandra, 7th Avatar of Vishnu. Home to many Scriptures. Festival, Ram Navami. Hanuman Temple, Hanuman Garhi. The Nageshwarnath Temple is another sacred place established by the son of Rama called Kush. The temple was the only place of survival when Ayodhya was left until the time of Vikramaditya. The Shivratri festival is held in the temple.
- Mathura. Birthplace and home to Lord Krishna. Festivals Jamnastami and Holi.
- Haridwar. Significant destination for Pilgrims. Home to the Kumbha Mela Festival, Kanwa Pilgrimage. Other sacred pilgrimages held here are known as the panch Tirth which include Kushawart, Bilwa Tirtha, Neel Paryat and Gangadwar.
- Varanasi. Particularly important for Shiva, famous for the opportunity for ritual bathing.
- Kanchipuram. Famous for many ancient temples. Particularly important for dedication to Vishnu. Vaishnavites and Saivites have a pilgrimage site in the city of Kanchipuram.
- Dvaraka. Named by Krishna. Hindus normally congregate in the Dvaraka city in the month of August and September to celebrate the Janmashtami festival.
- Ujjain. The city is a Hindu pilgrimage site and is one of the sites in the country where the Kumbh Mela is hosted. Has ties to the god Ganesha.
While a festival may have a special link with a particular place, the celebration of each festival happens all across India and the world. Other festivals such as Diwali, Navaratri, Dussehra, and Raksha Bandhan fall into this category. These festivals, as well as more day-to-day acts of devotion, tend to follow certain patterns. It is this that we turn to in our next section.
Prayer and Meditation
Central to many forms of worship is the attempt to focus, remove distractions, and form a connection with something greater. Hinduism has developed many techniques for enabling this. They are presented here as variations on a few key themes.
Fire is a common symbol for divinity. The ancient view in India is that in anything that burns, in any fuel, there is something trapped which is then liberated by the flames and is then able to approach the heavens. The word ‘Nirvana’ comes from the Sanskrit word meaning to extinguish; liberation only comes when all the fuel has been released. Fire is used in offerings and as a tool to focus in the following ways.
- Havan – Also Homa, from the sanskrit word root hu, to consume. At its most basic it is a ritual involving burning symbolic offerings in a fire. Can be a large communal ritual, or a small act by an individual. The fire is sacred, the smoke purifies and protects the participants and their environment. These are therefore very adaptable rituals and can be performed in many situations and as part of many ceremonies.
- Arti – The offering of a light to the deity, usually an open flame. This is usually done in darkness to amplify the strength of the light. The light is usually processed around the deity and waved in front. Through this ritual the flame becomes a meeting point as both the object of the participants focus and the offering for the divine. It is linked to, and might derive from Homa rituals.
The use of an image, not just to focus but to form a connection, is a common theme in Hindu practices. This can be seen in the significance afforded to a few forms of devotion.
- Puja – from the Sankrit word for honour or respect. Communication with the divine through the use of a sacred image. The image represents the god and is treated as a proxy for receiving the deity as a guest in the space in which the ritual takes place. Can be performed in temples or in private homes. The image is there to help with focus. Concentration on the divine, forming a connection. Light are laid out, flowers, food, water as offerings. It is either sat or stood, and can be done in numerous circumstances. They vary widely in how elaborate and long they are depending on where, when, why, and by who they are being performed. The shortest can be simply daily prayer offered upon waking. The longest can last days and involve dressing, feeding, bathing and putting to rest, the image or statue that is playing host to the god. Puja is a very broad term and can involve the other, more narrowly descriptive items in this section.
- A pujari is a person who attends, looks after, a god, goddess.
- Darshan – From the sanskrit word for viewing. The viewing or sighting of a divinity or holy person. Most commonly in the form of a statue while it is being processed between temples, or viewed at the end of a pilgrimage. The viewing is thought to be reciprocal. The most famous examples of these are monthly Rathayatras. It is an opportunity to form a link between the follower and leader; whether that leader is a holy person, a person of great power and influence, or a god. It is seeing divinity with one’s own eyes, if one manages this, they are thought to be blessed.
The use of the voice in acts of devotion takes on many forms; as varied as the voices themselves.
- Bhajan – Devotional song, from the Sanskrit for reverence. Topics, style and form vary. Truly any sung piece of music that is dedicated to a deity can be described as a Bhajan.
- Kirtan – Sanskrit for praise or eulogy. These are more commonly based on stories or scripture. However, at least in its performative aspect, it is similar to a Bhajan. It is most commonly a chant that involves call and response. Kirtans can even be in the form of light theatre or a folk song.
- Japa – from the Sanskrit ‘to utter in a low voice, mutter, repeat internally. Recitation of mantras in a meditative state. Not necessarily spoken out loud. Can be performed alone or in groups. Doesn’t have to be a mantra, could be a divine name, word, sound, or phrase.
- A Japamala is a string of prayer beads used when performing a Japa.
The previous three subsections are all relevant not just for worship but for meditation. This leads us to Yoga, perhaps the most famous practice to come from Hinduism. The most important thing to note about Yoga is that it is much more than the poses and physical practice that it has become associated with in the minds of many people around the world. One way of viewing Yoga, perhaps the most useful for our current aims, is to look at Yoga as a process of preparation for the practice of meditation.
Perhaps the most famous of these systems of preparation is Ashtanga Yoga; the Eight Limbs. By looking through them, it becomes clear that it is much more than the physicality, the third Limb, and that it is all orientated, like Hinduism more generally, towards cultivating a union with the divine.
- Yama. Universal Moral commandments that transcend boundaries.How you behave towards others.
- Niyama. Self-purification by discipline. Disciplines. Peaceful acceptance. How you behave towards yourself.
- Asana. Physical posture.
- Pranayama. Breath control. Regulation of energy and life force through rhythmic control of breath.
- Pratyahara. Withdrawal of senses. Emancipation of the mind from the senses. Getting rid of distractions.
- Dharana. Concentration or complete attention. Often on a single point, item or object.
- Dhyana. Meditation.
- Samadhi. A state in which the aspirant is one with the object of their mediation, the supreme spirit. And experiences unutterable peace and joy.
Even the Ashtanga is one interpretation on what is an entire school of thought within Hinduism. With varieties that are too numerous to detail in these pages. Having said that, by returning to the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred text that is foundational to the practice; the one constant goal of Yoga is evenness of mind. Cultivating an attitude of non-attachment based on knowledge of the way things really are which leads to skill in actions, acting without desire. Three aims can be derived from this text:
- Jnana; Wisdom, knowledge. Sacred knowledge from meditation on the higher truths. In Yoga, the way towards realisation and union with the divine. This is meditation heavy.
- Karma; Works, Action. Aim for the stage where you’re acting without desire for the fruits or consequences of your actions. Evenness of mind, acting in harmony.
- Bhakti; Worship, Adoration. The way towards union through adoration. Focus upon and imaging divinity in order to enter into proper unity.
‘You are only entitled to the action, never to its fruits. Do not let the fruits of action be your motive, but do not attach yourself to non-action.’Krishna; Chapter 2, verse 47; Lars Martin Fosse translation
As mentioned above. Yoga is recognised as an entire school of thought within Hinduism. Its practice, as well as the others explored here are endlessly adapted and applied as part of many different schools of thought and theological traditions. Learning about these various Sources of Wisdom and Authority will be the focus of the next page.